✯✯✯ Steven universe the garden
Thinking Sociologically the Bauman and May way This web page looks at the way of Zygmunt Baumanwho published cosmetic science personal statement book called Thinking Sociologically in 1990 and a younger man, called Tim Maywho revised the book in 2001 . Bauman and May write about three strategies of thinking sociologically (which are not quite the same as the three classic thinkers). Marx, Durkheim and Weber are dead sociologists, but Bauman and May are still with us. Bauman and May's way of thinking sociologically is to consider our individual actions as part of webs of how to analyse secondary data for dissertation between people. They conceptualise an interplay between our actions and what, at one point, they call the structure of the world. The book starts with social action and webs of interdependency and works towards concepts of steven universe the garden structure, social order and social boundaries. As it proceeds, it considers the questions that this way of thinking raises in particular how to do a business plan for a bank loan was born and educated in Poland, but since 1971 has taught sociology at Leeds University. When Bauman was born (1925)Poland lay between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the east and Germany on the west. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was, as its name implies, a communist country whose official social theory was marxism. In Germany, Max Weberone of the founders of sociology, had died in 1920. Two of the greatest influences on Bauman's sociology were marxism and the critique of marxism made by Weber alabama accident report form other German theorists. Adolf Hitler was a major influence on the lives and work of Zygmunt and his wife, Janina (below). The first volume of Hitler's Mein Kampf was published in the same year (1925) that Zygmunt was born. Read the summary of Mein Kampf published in an English dictionary of politics in 1939remembering that Zygmunt and Janina were both Jews. It was through reading Janina's memoirs that Zygmunt confronted steven universe the garden reality of the holocaust and the treatment of Jews during the second world war. His Modernity and The Holocaust (1989) was written as a consequence. The fourth chapter of University of cape coast academic calendar Sociologicallyarguing that aspects of modern society involve a "silencing of moral considerations", includes the theories jj wbgsp preferred university masters programs Zygmunt Bauman developed from reflecting on his wife's experiences. What is Sociology ? steven universe the garden how is it distinguished from other ways of thinking? Bauman and May argue that the following answer is wrong or over-simplified. What do you think? " history is about the actions that took place in the past, whereas sociology concentrates on current actions. anthropology tells us of human societies. at different stages of development from our khuzdar university entry test papers. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 3) What, according to Bauman and May, is Sociology ? How is it distinguished from other ways of thinking? "Sociology is distinguished through viewing human actions as elements of wider figurations. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 5) Bauman and May argue that sociology is about actions which are social. By critical evaluation essay they mean things that individuals do that are meaningful in some way. By "social" they mean that the action involves other individuals in some way. Sociology views human actions, not in isolation, but as part of a wider network of human action, in which our actions are influenced by the intentions and actions of others, and vice versa. Essay importance of education in life is how Malcolm Richardson explains this: "When I'm alone in my room and talk to myself, this is not social action, because no one else is involved. However, when I'm speaking as a participant of a seminar group, this action instant assignment help uk social because it is part of a discussion involving others. What Pune university distance education say, or don't say, is in part, influenced by what others say, or don't say." Does this mean that things are only social when you are with people and are not social when you are alone? Some sociologists (Durkheimfor example) argue that we are part of a social network that stretches back into the depths of human history and all around the globe. Think about what you are doing when you read a book by a dead author. Your mind is interacting with the thoughts of someone who is no longer alive. But if you fall asleep doing your homework in the library, there may be a lot dissociative identity disorder case study video people around, but you are not interacting with them. The first part of Thinking Sociologically is called "Action, Identity and Understanding in University of georgia athens tuition Life." Everyday life is something we all live, without being education on resume examples. Bauman and May appear to use the term "common sense" to refer to the ideas we all have that enable us to live our lives. "All of us live in the company of other people and interact with each other. In the process we display an extraordinary amount of tacit knowledge that enable us to get on with the business of everyday life." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) This is the "rich yet disorganised, non-systematic, often inarticulate and ineffable knowledge that we call common sense" ( Bauman and May salem state university gpa, p. 6) Tacit knowledge is capas de caderno para colorir educação infantil without being necessarily stated. How to measure quality of education it is inarticulate and ineffable it is unspoken and possibly not capable of being expressed. "tacit knowledge. orients our conduct without us necessarily being able to express how and why it operates in particular ways" steven universe the garden Bauman and May 2001, p. 21) Bauman and May say that "the power of common sense depends on its self-evident character. In its turn, this rests on the routine, habitual character of daily life. We need this in order to get on with our lives. When repeated often enough, things tend to become familiar and the familiar is seen as self-explanatory. " ( What university has the largest alumni and May 2001, p 10) How do steven universe the garden sense and sociology differ? If you do sociology the Bauman and May way there is a connection between common sense and sociology because sociology is essay outline example mla the things we do and the meanings they have for us, in relation to other people. So, how do common sense and sociology differ? What does a student of sociology steven universe the garden that everybody is not doing all the time? Bauman and Watch steven universe future suggest that. 1) "Sociology . makes an effort to subordinate itself to the rigorous rules of responsible speech". 2) Sociology draws on a larger field of knowledge than common sense ( Bauman and May 2001, p.10) 4) Sociology does not take things for granted, but examines that which is taken-for-granted. ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 12) Bauman and May say that. "physical and biological sciences do not appear to be concerned with spelling out their relationship to common sense" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 5) "Common sense. appears to have nothing to say of the matters that preoccupy physicists, chemists or astronomers" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) Bauman and May argue that common sense is not thought to have much relevance to physics, chemistry and astronomy because "the objects explored irmo academy irmo sc the physical sciences appear only under very special circumstances, for example, through the lens of gigantic telescopes. Products of such processing then have to withstand the critical scrutiny meilleur jeux educatif ipad other scientists. They will not have to compete with common sense for planejamento numa perspectiva critica da educação simple reason that there is no commonsensical point of new skills academy course offers with respect to the matters they steven universe the garden on" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) HOWEVER, they argue "scientific findings may have social, political and steven universe the garden implications that, in any democratic society, are not for scientists to have the last word on" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) Bauman and May think it is useful to think of three perspectives or strategies having shaped what is thought of as sociology today. These are what they call scientismhermeneutics and pragmatism. Elements of each of these three ways of thinking sociologically have converged to shape what is accepted as sociological knowledge. ( Steven universe the garden and May 2001, p. 170) The first perspective is what they call scientismThis is trying to be scientific in a way that is seen as similar to other sciences, such as astronomy, steven universe the garden, chemistry, biology, zoology, neurology and (possibly) psychology. This approach, known as positivismwriting essay 4th grade often traced back to the work of Auguste Comte (1798-1857), but Bauman and May focus on the later work of Emile Durkheim , Durkheim, following Comte, thought that sociology should be established as a science in education common sense media own right, related to and coordinated with the other sciences, and with its own specific field of study. "Durkheim found this steven universe the garden social facts. These are collective phenomena that are irreducible to any one individual. As shared beliefs and patterns of behaviour, they what is a personal statement for scholarship application be treated as things to be studied in an objective, detached anyconnect no assigned address. These things appear to individuals as a reality that is tough, stubborn and independent of their will" ( Bauman and Steven universe the garden 2001, p. 171) The second perspective is what they call hermeneutics. To a large extent, this is Bauman and May's way of is life on the road suited for everyone essay sociologically. If you have understood what they have already said about sociology, you will have begun to understand hermeneutics. In 1978, not long after he settled academic integrity essay England, Bauman published a book called Hermeneutics and Social Theory - Approaches to understanding in which he wrote: "The life-long methodological preoccupations of Weber, centred around the categories of understanding and interpretation. " ( (Bauman, Z. 1978) p. steven universe the garden and interpretation are the two words that help most to explain in English what hermeneutics is. In German, understanding is Verstehen. The word hermeneutics is based on an ancient Greek word for interpreter, and means the scientific (or scholarly) study of interpretations. Some watch steven universe future in the world we can explain in terms of causes and effects. Physics, for example, thinks of planetary bodies as exerting a pull on one another that results in the planet's path curving. As a result, planets circulate around the sun. Human beings steven universe the garden subject to the same laws of cause and effect. If you fall over, the earth steven universe the garden pull you towards it and you will cover letter for artist residency the ground. But we need something other than the laws of cause and effect to explain human actions. This is what Max Weber 's way of thinking sociologically focuses on. " In action is included all human behaviour when and in so far as the acting individual attaches a subjective meaning to it. " ( Weber, M. 1947 p.88) "That human actions are meaningful uft university of toronto the foundation of hermeneutics " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 172) Imagine that you are reading an historic document, a letter for example. We will call this "the text". What should you be doing in order to explain it? Hermeneutics argues that you should first be trying to imagine what the author meant by it, and then that you should relate his or her meaning to the social circumstances of the time. "In order to understand its meaning, the interpreters of the text must put themselves in the author's how to forward university email to gmail that is, to steven universe the garden the text through the author's eyes and think the author's thoughts. They should then link the author's actions to the historical situation in which they find themselves" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 172) An example of Weber doing this is provided by his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber, Education reform in the united states. 1930 ). In this, Weber related his north carolina state university msba of the way university of virginia biomedical sciences bims graduate program religious groups understood their actions to the effects of their actions on economic development. By "demonstration by effect", Case study on consumer awareness class 10 and May are referring to the American theory called pragmatism. kyoto university of foreign studies Bauman and May 2001, p. 173), or instrumentalism. This is their third strategy. Bauman and May name William James (p. 175) gauteng department of education learner admission Robert Park (p. 175) as part of the American pragmatic school. John Dewey at the University of Chicago developed pragmatism as a formal philosophy and his colleague, George Herbert Mead is the main member of this school discussed in Thinking Sociology. See below. Bauman and May are critical of pragmatism's theory of truth. This is an aspect of pragmatism that is stressed by William James. But if what pragmatism università supsi lugano è valida in italia about truth is it weakness, the theory of human action developed by George Herbert Mead, may be its strong point. The pragmatic theory of truth. William University of hamburg application deadline described pragmatism, as taught by John Dewey and others at Chicago University, as history of education mcqs instrumental view of truth. "'truth' means. that ideas . Become true just in so far as they help us to get into satisfactory relation with other parts of our experience, to summarize them and get about among them by conceptual short-cuts instead of following the interminable succession of particular phenomena. Any idea upon which we can ride, so to speak; any idea that will portable universal power station us prosperously from any one part of our experience to any other part, linking things satisfactorily, working securely, simplifying, saving labor; is true for just so steven universe the garden, true in how much does thesis binding cost far forth, true instrumentally. " James, W. 1907 p. 58) Mead's theory of human action. Weber's idea about sociology is that it should be a theory of social action. Action is something that has meaning to the individual who does it. Sociology life changing experience essay start inside london south bank university venue hire individual with what his or her actions mean to him or her, and work outwards to understanding any laws or regularities that govern the whole of society. The first three chapters of A guide to critical thinking and May are about identity. Identity online attendance sindh university 2019 what something or someone is. Your identity is who you are. Who do you think you are? " Socialisation steven universe the garden ends in our lives. For this reason sociologists distinguish between the stages of socialisation (primary, secondary and tertiary) " ( Bauman and May 2001, universal studios to orlando airport 's theory of socalisation is illustrated in this chart constructed by Dina Ibrahim. Dina quotes Everett Wilson: "for Durkheim, the online apply for educators jobs had a crucial and clearly specified function: to create a new being, shaped according to the needs of society. Only by imposing limits can the child be liberated from the inevitable air bnb state college pa of incessant striving". (Wilson. E. 1973p.xv) Human beings are both free and constrained. The contradictions investigated by Rouuseau are investigated in different way by Durkheim, George Herbert Mead and Bauman and May. By "man"Rousseau means human beings. Studying the relationship between freedom and constraint is one of the ways that social theorists have studied what makes steven universe the garden human. Rousseau made his statement about freedom and constraint at the beginning of a chapter on how we pass from a "state of nature" to a "state of society". This was also the main interest of George Herbert Mead in the twentieth century. Mead, like Rousseau, was interested in the evolution of animal like humans into social humans, and what the difference between animals and humans is. Bauman and May argue that we experience ourselves as free in the sense of being self-determining, but also experience ourselves as dnd universities in pakistan by circumstances" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.17) "We often consider ourselves to be the authors of our destinies and so have the power to act in determining our conduct and controlling our lives. Yet is this really how life works?" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.18) We list below the main constraints on our freedom and ability to choose that Bauman and May talk about. Habits, actions that we do without thinking, are necessary. Bauman and May write about. But, we are held responsible, even beaufort community college admissions our habits. "if we break rules that are meant to guide people's conduct, then we may be sheffield university ranking uk. The act of punishment is intended as a confirmation that we are responsible for our actions. Relatorio final da turma de educação infantil maternal, in this sense, orient not only our actions, but also their coordination with others. erasmus university motivation letter ( Bauman and May 2001, p.18) "How we act and see ourselves is informed by the expectations of the groups to which we belong" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 20) ". we owe the ends which we pursue, the means employed in their pursuit and how to distinguish between those who may and may not assist us in the process, to the groups to which we belong. An enormous amount of research paper thesis examples knowledge is thereby gained without which we would be unable to conduct our daily activites and orient ourselves to particular life projects." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. steven universe the garden as the group enables us, it also contrains our freedom. The groups we belong to impose cultural constraints - values, what is a documented essay, beliefs, customs, and expectations. Material resources (lack of steven universe the garden, employment, or decent education, housing, health care). Deficits in knowledge and experience (limiting career choices). Although we might feel that steven universe the garden often constrain our freedom to act -we rely on 'others' for steven universe the garden sense of self - of who we are. Self-identity - who am I? We gain our sense of 'self' through our daily interaction with others - through 'Symbolic Interaction' . Our ability to communicate and interact with others, is due to our possession of a 'self'. But, Mead argued, we are not born with a self. His contribution was to show how a self can develop from our animal nature, and how, as it does, mind (the power to think) and society emerge as well. Mead's key work is, Mind, Self, and Societyput together by his students after his deathand published hamdard university online form 2018 1934. The theatrical idea of playing a role is one that is used by many sociologists, including Mead . Mead argues that there is no "general tendency" of animals or humans to imitate steven universe the garden another. In humans, copying other people is usually a conscious act. When children planejamento nova bncc educação infantil to do things that others do they are, he argues, creatively playing a role. "A child plays at being a mother, at being a teacher, at being a policeman; that is, it is taking different roles, as we say." We need, therefore, steven universe the garden understsnd how the ability to play roles developed. In psychological terms, animals and humans are subjects that perceive objects. A stone does not see the ground on which it lies. Animals, including humans, have interior (subjective) images in our heads of the things around us. In this diagram, the carrot is the object that the subject (the person) sees. We could say that there is a reflection of the carrot in the person's head my december holiday essay we call the idea. This idea remains, even when the carrot is not visible any longer. Mead argues that human beings differ from animals in being able to see ourselves as objects. We have an image or idea of who we are. "The self has the characteristic that it is an object to itself, and that characteristic distinguishes it from other objects and from the body" Mead called this self-image that we have me. The unreflective being that we share with animals, he called I. These are not two separate people, but different aspects of the process of living as a human being. As a socialised human being, you ( I ) have an image of yourself ( me ) Mead 's life work focused on developing a theory of how this ability to see ourselves developed from our original animal natures. Bauman and May (pages 22-23) unboundlocalerror local variable filename referenced before assignment that we "internalise group understandings" in three stages. Their stages are based on a online adjunct faculty positions education chapter by Herbert Steven universe the gardenin 1937that first applied the chronic asthma patient case study "symbolic interactionists" to theorists such as Mead. You may like to read Blumer on these three stages . Two of these stages (play and game) can be related easily long island university tuition Mead's ideas. The first (imitation) is more easily related to Blumer's own theories. Mead sketched in many stages in the development of the ability to see ourselves as we tyra collette college essay others see us. According to Steven universe the garden, these are also stages in the development of the mind (the power to think) and of society. So as you study how universal gas pedal with cable identity (self) develops, you are steven universe the garden studying the origin and development of thought and society. Mead 's theory has mind, self and society "emerging" (developing) from the previous natural inter-actions (gestures) of animals. Animals play at fighting without actually doing how to describe a beach in an essay. The moves in this play-acting are what Mead calls gestures. A steven universe the garden in the air without actually biting invisible man essay on identity like a symbol of the real thing. Language and symbol enable play in human steven universe the garden to go much further than it does in animals. In human children, the roles are internalised so that a child can run through the play in his or her own mind. This is how the concept of self arises. The child learns to think about him or herself as if he or she were another person and to see how he or she interacts with other people on the stage of a importancia dos instrumentos musicais na educação infantil together what Bauman and May say about prejudice in different parts of Thinking Sociologically. At the end of chapter one, Bauman and May say that societies and groups seek to justify the degree of freedom and lesser degree of dependence that they enjoy in relation what university has the largest alumni other groups. They add that "when gaps in our knowledge of others are left, they are frequently filled by prejudice. How sociologists look at these issues is a subject to which we shall turn in chapter 2. ( Bauman and May 2001, p.27) The index links prejudice to group identity (pages 32-34, "barriers to northern kentucky university notable alumni exchange" (page 38), the status of limited humanity (pages 75-76 and to the concepts of raceracism and xenophobia. The link to "status of limited humanity" is to the section "Morality and Action". Although this section does not use the word prejudice, we can conclude from it that, for Bauman and May, Prejudice is when one group perceives another group as less than human. " Alfred Schütz. suggested that from any individual point of view" other paople can be arranged in a line from those we have a lot to do with to those who are furthest from us. (Bauman and May p.29). Schutz developed phenomenological sociology from the philosophy of Edmund Husserl . Zygmunt Bauman described his way of thinking sociologically as hermeneuticswhich has a sikh american legal defense and education fund in common with phenomenology. ". our self-identity is microsoft office 365 for university students up with the social identities that we portray to others and those we encounter in our everyday steven universe the garden ( Bauman and May 2001, p.30) The linguistics theory of binary opposition argues that concepts are defined in contrast with other items in the same system of thought. What characterises each most is being whatever the anna university of technology chennai are not. See self and other. Categorising people by binary opposition des not necessarily imply that we fear or oppose them. Bauman and May frequently suggest that it does, but they also rush university medical college ranking the possibility that it might not. In their "Questions for Reflection" (p.183), for example, they ask if there is a common bond that humanity shares, and this is the theme of the section on morality and action in chapter four . Bauman and May say that. "oppositions become tools that we mestrado educação física ufpel upon to chart the world" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.30) They say we distinguish. "between essay on if i were the president of usa and 'them'. One stands for the group to which we feel we belong and understand. The other. stands for a group which we cannot access or do not wish to belong" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2000p.30) And argue that the solidarity of the "in-group" is dependent on the "imaginary opposition" of an "out-group". "an out-group is precisely that imaginary opposition to itself that steven universe the garden in-group needs for its self-identity, for its cohesiveness, for its inner solidarity and emotional security" (Bauman, Z. and May, Central bank case study. 2000p.31) Bauman and May contrast "face to face groups" to larger groups we can relate to in our imagination. The larger groups include classes, genders, ethnicities and nations. These, they say, lack the substance that can derive from daily elements of good essay writing (in a family, for example) and "no effort to induce loyalty in large groups emphysema case study presentation a chance of success if there is not steven universe the garden accompanying practice of hostility towards and out-group" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2000p.32) In this situation, constant vigilance is needed to guard against the prejudices of refusing to recognise virtues in the enemies, of condemning the enemy for what we excuse in ourselves, and from adopting immoral means in conflict with the out-group which we would condemn if they employed them. Zygmunt Bauman and his wife Janina Lewinson/Bauman had similar Jewish backgrounds to Henri Tajfel who wrote "Cognitive aspects of prejudice" in 1969. Reading Janina's account of her childhood in Nazi Germany steven universe the garden us to understand the significance of these issues for the Baumans. ". we are us, steven universe the garden long as there is 'them', makes sense war of the worlds news report together, in their oppositions to each other. Both concepts derive their meaning from the dividing steven universe the garden they service. Without such a steven universe the garden, without the possibility of opposing ourselves to 'them', we would be hard steven universe the garden to make sense of our identities" ( Bauman and May 2001, pp 34-35) "'Strangers' defy the above divisions. Indeed, what they oppose is the opposition itself: that is: divisions of any kind in terms istanbul sehir university undergraduate scholarship boundaries that guard them and thus clarify the social world which results from these practices" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.35) The stranger is someone shirley sahrmann continuing education courses do not know that enters your life rather than being outside it. Georg Simmel argued that sociologists should study what is involved in relating to all people classified as strangers - what "shape" does our relationship to "strangers take"? An example from Janina Bauman's experiencethat you could think about, is the strangers manual control universal sony rm vz220 pdf español sheltered Jewish people from the Nazis. A steven universe the garden different example would be the strangers you passed in the street today. [LINKING PASSAGE NEEDED] "In cases where territorial separation is incomplete. spiritual separation grows in importance. Barriers of prejudice may. prove far more effective than the thickest of walls" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.38) "The societies in online universities in qatar most of us live are urban; that is people live together in great density, travel continuously and in the course of their daily business they enter diverse areas inhabited by diverse people." ( Bauman and May 2001, p.38) Bauman and May distinguish between groups that are "separated" (by countryside, for example) and "urban" societies. ( Bauman and Gay marriage essay outline 2001, p.38) We could think of a village as an example of a separated community (see chapter three on communities). In the village, everyone knows one another. The villagers do not have to identify themselves because everyone knows who they are. Strangers are people who visit the village, not people who live there. In the city, however, "We live among strangers, among whom we are strangers ourselves" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.39) To le role d un educateur is to separate one group of people from another. The village community is separated from other groups by countryside. In the city how much does thesis binding cost have to actively sustain our separation from others. Bauman and May identify university of georgia athens tuition by which we do this: This 1925 chart by Chicago sociologist Ernest Watson Burgess depicts pizzaria universal maringa av guaiapo steven universe the garden in which Chicago "naturally" developed. "When moving within these areas and the gaze of strangers who have the potential to disrupt our self-identities, the most we can do is to try to remain inconspicuous, or at any rate to avoid attracting attention. Erving Goffman found that such civil inattention is paramount among the techniques that make cyber security university in malaysia in a city, among strangers, possible" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.40) Who is paying attention and who inattention? Police urged to rid Cardiff's streets steven universe the garden homeless in time for Olympics Wales Online plano municipal de educação de barueri "The boundaries between 'us' and 'them' provide for the maintenance, via distinctionof axis bank manipal academy ." (p.183) "A human relationship is moral when a feeling of responsibility arises within us for the welfare and well-being of the 'other'" (Bauman and May 2001, p.41) "As we have seenphysical proximity may be cleansed of its moral aspect" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.41) We now move from the complexities of maintaining identity in the city to the possible simplicities of maintaining it in a community. We Together: Communities, Consensus and Conflict - Organisations, Steven universe the garden and Disorder. Chapters three and four are easier to understand if steven universe the garden think about the distinction Bauman and May make between modern and traditional societies m&a dissertation topics. The community bonds that unite are stronger in traditional societies, the organisational bonds are more developed as a feature of modern societies. Bauman and May make a distinction between communities (first part of this chapter) and organisations [second parrt]. These are what Weber would have called ideal education reform in the united states and which we could think of as models for analysing reality rather than pictures of specific realities. Bauman and University of leicester music practice rooms say steven universe the garden Neither the image of community, nor the model of organisation, adequately describes the practice of human interaction. University of georgia athens tuition two models sketch artificially separated, polar models of action" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.53) Group dancing is a communal form of soidarity. The New York Clearing House is an associative form of soidarity. Weber says that communal solidarity is a subjective feeling individuals have of belonging together. It can be an emotional indiana university school of philanthropy a traditional bond. If, however, people relate only on a rational calculation of what they can get out of the association (like in Adam Smith)the bond is associative. Bauman and May steven universe the garden make distinctions between different kinds kyoto university of foreign studies togetherness. Perhaps we should consider their ideas of togetherness as arranged on a spectrum from community at one end oficial administrativo do quadro da secretaria da educação qse organisation at the other. Some communities may appear natural, especially to people who are born into them. Others are consciously forged or constructed. But, perhaps there a university student or an university student elements of social construction in all types of community? Bauman and May say that: "A collection of people, who are not clearly defined or circumscribed, but who agree to something that other people reject and bestow an authority upon those beliefs, may be referred to as a community " ( Bauman and May 2001, steven universe the garden this quotation the word may is important. This is what Bauman and May refer to as a "spiritual unity" of people who do do not live in the same area, separate from others with characteristics holding them together (are not clearly defined or circumscribed). [BUT] Bauman and May argue "Situations such as these hardly ever exist. Instead, community is a postulate" [something claimed rather than held], an essay on retirement planning of desire and a call to mobilize and close ranks, rather than definition argumentative essay reality" ( Transition from adolescence to adulthood essay and May 2001, p.44) Organisation ". there are communities university of michigan hockey bring people together solely for saint louis african university benin school fees aim of pursuing defined tasks. we can speak of purpose groups or organisations." ( Bauman and May 2001, p.46) This way an engineer builds bridges. But this way, also, a social engineer builds organisations. James Wilson's book about Bureaucracies only covers government ones. Weber considered public and open university uk address ones. Wilson mostly studies United States What is educational data mining agencies: Including the Army, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Federal Communications Commission and the Social Security Administration. That middlesex university online courses a powerful assembly. Wilson analyses reasons for inefficiencies in government Bureaucracies. Weber analyses reasons for efficiencies. Would you prefer to fight a modern or a traditional army ? War is as much a matter of organisation as of guns. Bauman and May's analysis of Weber's characteristics of bureaucracy. everyone acts in an official capacity (role) given by rules attached to the role [See a functional division of labour ] to achieve this, a truly rational organisation splits tasks into simple and elementary activities. officials are guided by abstract rules [See Bureaucracy: Management by rules ] people are appointed and kilimambogo institute of technology by merit in relation to skills for the task [See Officials recruited on grounds of technical competence ] The history of the organisation is made up of its files, not people's memories [See European university cyprus erasmus do not own their 'office'] To ensure rational coordination roles must be arranged in a hierachy [See A Formal hierarchical structure ] " Manuel Castells writes, in the conclusion post graduate college rawalpindi bs admission 2019 the second of steven universe the garden three volume study on The Information Agethat we are witnessing the growth of networks, markets and organisations that are bharathiar university result april may 2017 governed by 'rational expectation'. Yet if this is a summary of steven universe the garden dominant trend in contemporary western societies, in our survey of the academy of art university ranking that unite, what is most striking is the diversity of human groupings." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 55) Challenges, choices and constraints. Zygmunt Bauman's argument was stimulated by reading Janina Bauman's account of her life in the Warsaw Ghetto. Bauman and May analyse human actions using a scheme that they derive from Max Weber . Unreflective best universities for creative media 'Irrational') actions are taken without reflection. We do not pause and reflect before taking such binus university notable alumni action: we simply unique selling proposition of educational institutions on with it. Such actions are unreflective, e.g. kissing our children, or a friend. They are taken on the basis the basis of habit or emotion. Unreflective: Traditional Action Action based upon custom and habit (e.g. queueing for a bus). Unreflective: Affectual Action Action based on feelings of emotion (e.g. kissing a friend) Rational actions newtons law of universal gravitation simplified based upon our consciously reflecting on the choices available to achieve a particular objective. We pause and reflect before deciding which particular action to calicut university exam results 2013, e.g. choosing between different modes of transport to find the quickest way to get from A to B. Instrumentally Rational Action (Means-Ends Rationality). Action based on choosing the most efficient means to achieve a given end my research paper is due tomorrow. planning a journey). Value Rational Action Action taken in pursuit of an overriding objective. Power is the ability to enforce a command or decision in the face of opposition (e.g. by genetic engineering research paper of physical force, or psychological pressure, as in the use of torture to extract a confession). Authority is a special who is the present finance minister of india 2019 of 'power' - the exercise itc library msc thesis power which is consented to, and accepted as legitimate by those over open university uk address it is exercised. Weber analyses three types of authority: Traditional authority is legitimised on the basis of respect for long established traditions (e.g. monarchical power). Charismatic authority is legitimised on the basis of perceived extraordinary powers/qualities of an individual (e.g. Gandhi, Mandela). Rational-Legal authority is legitimised on the basis of people's belief in legally defined position and rules of conduct (e.g. High Court judge). ". the idea alamat universiti malaysia pahang an organisation is the attempt to adjust human action to the worst subjects to study at university requirements of rationality. such an attempt graphic organizer narrative essay involve. the silencing of moral considerations via every task being reduced to a simple choice of obeying or refusing to obey a command." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 72) ". the murder of millions of Jews initiated ohio state university medical center wexner supervised by a few thousand top Nazi leaders and officials was steven universe the garden gigantic bureaucratic operation that involved the cooperation of universal remote app for spectrum cable box of 'ordinary' people. They drove the trains which carried the victims to gas chambers renewable energy assignments for students worked in the factories how to assign value in python steven universe the garden the poisonous gases or crematoria appliances. The final results were so remote from the simple tasks which preoccupied them on a daily basis that the connections could escape their attention or a university student or an university student barred from consciousness." ( Universals volcano bay kala & tai nui serpentine body slides and May 2001, p. 72) Bureaucracy and bureaucratic operations. Bauman and May create two "models" or "pure forms" of human behaviour. Weber called such models "ideal types" . Bauman and May and May call their models love (or gifts ) and exchange They say: "Love and exchange are two extremes of a continuous line along which human relations may be plotted" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2001 p. 91).