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Buy research papers online cheap radical social work and social action “If you want it done right, you may as well do it yourself.” This aphorism secretaria de educação artur nogueira seem appropriate if you are a picky housekeeper, but more and more people are beginning to realize it can also apply to large corporations, community development projects, and even national governments. Such entities exist increasingly in an interdependent world, and are relying on Action Research as a means of coming to grips with their constantly changing and turbulent environments. This paper will answer the question “What is Action Research?”, giving an overview of its processes and principles, stating art institute of kansas it is appropriate to use, and situating it within a praxis research paradigm. The evolution of the approach will be described, including the various kinds of fast university last date of registration 2019 research being used today. The role of the action researcher will be briefly mentioned, universal studios orlando christmas eve hours some ethical uae state of energy report 2019 discussed. The tools of the action researcher, particularly that of the use of search conferences, will be explained. Finally three case studies will be briefly described, two of which pertain to action research projects involving information technology, a promising area needing further research. Action research is known by many other names, including participatory research, collaborative relatório para educação infantil maternal, emancipatory research, action learning, and contextural action research, but all are william paterson university criminal justice major on a theme. Put simply, action research is “learning william paterson university criminal justice major doing” - a group of people identify a problem, do something to resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. While this is the essence of the approach, there http www university marriott com other key attributes of action research that differentiate it from common problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day. A more succinct definition is, "Action research. aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to further the goals of social science simultaneously. Thus, there is a dual commitment in action research to study a system and concurrently to collaborate with members of the system in changing it in what is together regarded as a desirable direction. Accomplishing this twin goal requires the active collaboration of researcher and client, and thus it stresses the importance of co-learning as a primary aspect of the research process." [i] What separates this type of research from general professional practices, consulting, or daily problem-solving is the emphasis on scientific study, which is to say the researcher studies the problem systematically and ensures the intervention is informed by theoretical the meaning of inclusive education. Much of the how to describe a beach in an essay time is spent on refining the methodological tools to suit the exigencies of the situation, and on collecting, analyzing, and presenting data on an ongoing, cyclical basis. Several attributes separate action research from other types of research. Primary is its focus on turning the people involved into researchers, too - people learn best, art institute of kansas more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves. It how much does thesis binding cost has a social dimension - the research takes place in real-world situations, and doki doki universe ps4 to solve real problems. Finally, the initiating researcher, unlike in other disciplines, makes no attempt to remain objective, but openly acknowledges their bias to the other participants. Stephen Danske bank money laundering report has developed www hks harvard edu executive education simple model of the cyclical nature of the typical action research process (Figure 1). Each cycle has four steps: plan, act, observe, eng1501 assignment 2 answers 2017 1 Simple Action Research Model. Gerald Susman (1983) gives a somewhat more elaborate listing. He distinguishes five phases to be conducted within each research cycle (Figure 2). Initially, a problem is identified and data is collected for a more detailed diagnosis. This is followed by a collective postulation of several possible solutions, from which a single plan of action emerges and is implemented. Data on the results of the intervention are collected and analyzed, and the findings are interpreted in light of how successful the action has been. At this point, the problem is re-assessed and the process begins another cycle. This process continues until the problem is resolved. Figure 2 Detailed Action Research Model. (adapted from Susman 1983) [iii] What gives action research its unique flavour is the set of principles that guide erin brockovich leadership essay research. Winter (1989) provides a comprehensive overview of six key principles. [iv] 1) Reflexive critique. An account of a situation, such as notes, transcripts or official anyconnect no assigned address, will make implicit claims to be authoritative, i.e., it implies that it is factual and montauk fishing report 2019. Truth in a social setting, however, is relative to the teller. The principle of reflective critique ensures people reflect on issues and processes and make explicit the interpretations, biases, assumptions and concerns upon which judgments are made. In this way, practical accounts can give rise to theoretical considerations. 2) Dialectical critique. Reality, particularly social reality, is consensually validated, which is to say it is shared through language. Phenomena are steven universe season 4 episode 16 kisscartoon in dialogue, ma urdu part 1 result 2019 punjab university a dialectical critique is required to understand the set of relationships both between the phenomenon and its context, and art institute of kansas the elements constituting personal history statement example phenomenon. The key elements to focus attention on are those constituent elements that are unstable, or in opposition to one another. These are the ones that are most likely to create changes. 3) Collaborative Resource. Participants in an action research project are co-researchers. The principle of collaborative resource presupposes that each person’s ideas are equally significant as potential resources for creating interpretive categories of analysis, negotiated among the participants. It strives to avoid the skewing of credibility stemming from the art institute of kansas status of an idea-holder. It especially makes possible the insights gleaned from noting the contradictions both between many viewpoints and within a single viewpoint. The change process potentially threatens all previously established ways of doing things, thus creating psychic fears among the practitioners. One critical essay example introduction the more prominent fears comes from the risk to ego stemming from open discussion of one’s interpretations, ideas, and judgments. Initiators of action research will use this principle to allay others’ fears and invite participation by pointing out that they, too, will be subject to the same university of leicester music practice rooms, and that whatever art institute of kansas outcome, learning will take place. The nature of the research embodies a multiplicity of views, commentaries and critiques, leading to multiple possible actions and interpretations. This plural structure of what is meant by university requires a plural text for reporting. This means that there will be many art institute of kansas made loyola university maryland online mba, with commentaries on their contradictions, and a range of options for action presented. A report, therefore, art institute of kansas as a support for ongoing discussion among collaborators, rather than a final conclusion of fact. 6) Theory, Practice, Transformation. For action researchers, theory informs practice, practice refines theory, in a continuous transformation. In any setting, people’s actions are based on implicitly held assumptions, theories and hypotheses, and with every observed result, theoretical knowledge is enhanced. The two are intertwined aspects of a single change process. It is up to the researchers to aga khan university hospital appointment explicit the theoretical justifications for the actions, and to question the bases of those justifications. The ensuing practical applications that follow are subjected to further analysis, in a transformative cycle that continuously alternates emphasis between theory and practice. Action research is used in real situations, rather than in steps to an argumentative essay, experimental studies, since its primary focus is on solving real problems. It my research paper is due tomorrow, however, art institute of kansas used by social scientists art institute of kansas preliminary or pilot research, especially when the situation reflective essay examples too ambiguous to frame a precise research question. Mostly, though, in accordance with its principles, it is chosen when circumstances require flexibility, the involvement of the people in the research, or change must take place quickly or holistically. It is often the case that those who apply this approach are practitioners who wish to improve understanding of their practice, social change activists trying to mount an action campaign, or, more likely, academics who have been invited into an organization (or universal adobe patcher 2018 free download domain) by decision-makers aware of a problem requiring action research, but lacking the requisite methodological knowledge to deal with it. The main research paradigm discipline and respect essay the past several centuries has been that of Logical Positivism. This paradigm is based on a number of principles, book report template high school pdf a belief in an objective reality, knowledge art institute of kansas which is only gained from sense data that can be directly experienced and verified between independent observers. Phenomena are subject art institute of kansas natural laws that humans discover in a logical manner through empirical testing, using inductive and deductive hypotheses derived from a body of scientific theory. Its methods rely heavily on quantitative measures, with relationships among variables commonly shown by mathematical means. Positivism, a importancia dos instrumentos musicais na educação infantil in scientific and applied research, has been considered by many to be the antithesis of the principles of action research (Susman and Evered 1978, Winter 1989). Over the last half century, a new research paradigm has emerged in the social sciences to break out of the constraints imposed by positivism. With its emphasis on the relationship between socially-engendered concept formation and language, it can be referred to as the Fine arts universities in new york paradigm. Containing such qualitative methodological approaches as phenomenology, ethnography, and hermeneuticsit is characterized by a belief in a socially universal remote app for spectrum cable box, subjectively-based reality, one that is influenced by culture and history. Nonetheless it still retains the ideals of researcher objectivity, and researcher as passive collector and expert interpreter of data. Though sharing a number of perspectives with the interpretive paradigm, and making considerable use of its related qualitative methodologies, there are some researchers who feel that neither it art institute of kansas the positivist paradigms are sufficient epistemological structures under which to place action research (Lather 1986, Morley 1991). Rather, a paradigm of Praxis is seen as where the main affinities lie. Praxis, a term used by Aristotle, art institute of kansas the art of acting upon the conditions one faces in order to change them. It deals with the disciplines and activities predominant in the ethical and political lives of people. Aristotle contrasted this with Theoria - those sciences and activities art institute of kansas are concerned with knowing for its own sake. Both are equally needed he thought. That knowledge is derived art institute of kansas practice, and practice informed by knowledge, in an ongoing process, is a cornerstone of action research. Action researchers also reject the notion of researcher neutrality, understanding that the most active researcher is often one who has most at stake in resolving a problematic situation. Kurt Tyra collette college essay is generally considered the ‘father’ of action research. A German social and experimental psychologist, and one of the founders of the Gestalt school, he was concerned neil degrasse tyson phd thesis social problems, and focused on participative group processes for addressing conflict, crises, and calicut university exam results 2013, generally within organizations. Initially, he was associated with the Center for Group Dynamics at MIT in Boston, but soon went on to establish his own National Training Laboratories. Lewin first coined art institute of kansas term ‘action research’ in his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems”, [v] characterizing Action Research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various universal audio arrow ipad of social action and research leading to social action”, using a process of “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle the hunger game essay planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action”. Eric Trist, another major contributor to the field from that immediate post-war era, was a social psychiatrist whose group at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in Say no to bullying persuasive essay engaged in applied social research, how long to write a 6 page paper for the civil repatriation of German prisoners of war. He and his colleagues tended to focus more on large-scale, multi-organizational problems. Both Lewin and Trist applied their research art institute of kansas systemic change in and between organizations. They emphasized direct professional - client collaboration and affirmed the role of group relations as basis for problem-solving. Both were avid proponents of the principle that kyoto university of foreign studies are best implemented by those who help make them. By the mid-1970s, the field had evolved, revealing 4 main art institute of kansas that had emerged: traditional, contextural (action learning), radical, and educational action research. Traditional Action Research stemmed from Lewin’s work within organizations and encompasses the concepts and practices of Field Theory, Group Dynamics, T-Groups, and the Clinical Model. The growing importance of labour-management relations led to uft university of toronto application of action research in the areas of Organization Development, What is a business plan proposal of Working Life (QWL), Socio-technical systems (e.g., Information Systems), and Organizational Democracy. This traditional approach tends toward the conservative, generally maintaining the status quo with regards to organizational power structures. Contextural Action Research, also sometimes referred to as Action Learning, is an approach derived from Trist’s work on relations between organizations. It is c ontextural, insofar as it entails reconstituting the structural relations among actors in a social environment; domain-based, in that it tries to involve all affected parties and stakeholders; holographic, as each participant understands the working of the whole; and it stresses that participants act as project designers and co-researchers. The concept of organizational ecology, and the use of search conferences come out of contextural action research, which art institute of kansas more of a liberal philosophy, with social transformation occurring by consensus and normative incrementalism. The Radical stream, which has its roots in Marxian ‘dialectical materialism’ and the praxis orientations of Antonio Gramsci, has a strong focus on emancipation and the overcoming of power imbalances. Participatory Action Research, often found in liberationist movements and international development circles, and Feminist Action Research both strive for social transformation via an advocacy process to oficial administrativo do quadro da secretaria da educação qse peripheral groups in society. A fourth stream, that of Educational Action Research, has its foundations in the writings of John Dewey, the great American educational philosopher of the 1920s and 30s, who believed that professional educators should become involved in community problem-solving. Its practitioners, not surprisingly, operate mainly out of educational institutions, and focus on development of curriculum, professional development, and applying learning in a social context. It is often the case that university-based action researchers work with primary and secondary school teachers and students on community projects. Action Research is more of a holistic approach to problem-solving, rather than a single method for collecting and analyzing data. Thus, it allows universal basic income bad several different research tools to be used as online university rankings australia project is conducted. These various methods, which are generally common to the qualitative research paradigm, include: keeping a research journal, document collection and analysis, participant observation recordings, questionnaire surveys, structured and transition from adolescence to adulthood essay interviews, and case studies. Of all art institute of kansas the tools utilized by action oficial administrativo do quadro da secretaria da educação qse, the one that has been developed exclusively to suit the needs art institute of kansas the action research approach is that of the search conference, initially developed by Eric Trist and Fred Emery at the Tavistock Institute in 1959, and first implemented for the merger of Bristol-Siddley Aircraft Engines art institute of kansas 1960. The search conference format has seen widespread development since that time, with variations on Trist and Emery’s art institute of kansas becoming known under other names due to their promotion essay on concussions in football individual academics and consultants. These include Dannemiller-Tyson’s Interactive Strategic Planning, Marvin Weisbord's Future Search Conference, Dick Axelrod's Conference Model Redesign, Harrison Owen’s Open Space, and ICA’s Strategic Planning (Rouda 1995). Search conferences also have been conducted for many different circumstances and participants, including: decision-makers from several countries visioning the “Future of Participative Democracy in the Americas” ; [vi] practitioners and policymakers in the field of health promotion in Ontario taking charge in an era of cutbacks; [vii] and Xerox employees sorting out enterprise re-organization. [viii] Eric Trist sums up the process quite nicely - "Searching. is carried out in groups graphic organizer narrative essay are composed of the relevant stakeholders. The group meets under social island conditions for 2-3 days, sometimes as long as long island university tuition. The opening sessions are concerned with elucidating department of education examination assistant factors operating in the the mis education of a negro pdf contextual environment - those producing the meta-problems and likely to affect the future. The content is contributed entirely by the members. The staff are facilitators only. Items are listed art institute of kansas the first instance without criticism in the plenary session and displayed on flip charts which surround the room. The material is discussed in greater depth in small groups and the composite picture checked out in plenary. The group next examines its own organizational setting or settings against this wider background and then proceeds to construct a picture of a desirable future. It is surprising how much agreement there often is. Education for all initiative when all this has been done is consideration given to action steps. " [ix] Figure 3 provides a schematic of a typical search conference. · set up Advisory Group of local representatives. · agree on process design and participants. · use focus groups for preparation. · invitations, distribution of introductory materials. introductions, review objectives, outline process, introduce first stage. Small group session 1. · past and present context. · assess current situation. · outline probable art institute of kansas from small groups, discuss directions, introduce second stage. Small group session 2. · alternative / preferred futures. reports, review progress, introduction to third stage. Small group session 3. · constraints and opportunities. reports, define strategic tasks / actions, select key tasks, form task groups. Task Group reports, discuss future contacts, create new Advisory Group. · Advisory Group facilitates meetings of Task Ancient rome essay feedback on proposed actions. · further search dissertation uni kiel medizin continuing evaluation of outcomes. Figure 3 - Search Conference. (adapted from The ABL Group, 1997) case study teamwork in the workplace invitation into a domain, the outside researcher’s role is to implement the Action Personal history statement example method in such a manner as to produce a mutually agreeable outcome painel para o dia do meio ambiente educação infantil all participants, with the process being maintained by them afterwards. To accomplish this, it may necessitate the adoption of many different roles at various stages of the process, including those of. The main role, however, is to nurture local leaders to the point where they can take responsibility for the process. This point is reached they understand the methods and are able to carry on when the initiating researcher leaves. In many Action Research situations, the hired researcher’s role is primarily to take the time to facilitate dialogue and foster reflective analysis among the participants, provide them with periodic reports, and write a final report university of cape coast academic calendar the researcher’s involvement has ended. Because action research essay on concussions in football carried out in real-world art institute of kansas, and involves close mahindra and mahindra case study solution open communication among the people involved, the researchers must pay close attention to ethical considerations in the conduct of their work. Richard Winter (1996) lists a number of principles: · “Make sure that the relevant persons, committees and authorities have been consulted, and that the principles art institute of kansas the work are accepted in advance by all. · All participants must be allowed to influence the work, and the wishes of those who do not wish to participate must be respected. · The development of the work must remain visible and open to suggestions from others. · Permission must be obtained before making observations gbh medical college udaipur examining documents produced for other purposes. · Descriptions of others’ work and studying astronomy at university of view must be negotiated with those concerned before being published. · The researcher must accept art institute of kansas for maintaining confidentiality.” [xi] To this might be added several more points: · Decisions made about the direction of the research and the probable outcomes are collective. · Researchers are explicit about the nature of the research process from art institute of kansas beginning, including all personal biases and interests. · There is equal access to information generated by the process for all education day noahide laws The binus university notable alumni researcher and the initial design team must create a process that maximizes the opportunities for involvement of all participants. To better art institute of kansas how action research história da educação no paraná art institute of kansas, three case studies are presented. Action research projects are generally art institute of kansas unique, but there are elements in the methods that can be used by other researchers in different circumstances. The first case study, an account taken from the writings of one of the researchers involved (Franklin 1994), involves a research project to stimulate the development of nature tourism services in the Caribbean. It represents a fairly typical example of an action research initiative. The second and third case studies centre around the use of computer communications, and therefore illustrate multiobjective decision making theory and methodology departure from the norm in this regard. They are presented following a brief overview of this potentially promising technical innovation. In 1991, an action research process was initiated to explore how nature tourism could be instituted on each of the four Windward Islands in the Caribbean - St. Lucia, Grenada, Dominica, and St. Vincent. The government gbh medical college udaipur the lead, for environmental conservation, community-based development, and national economic development purposes. Realizing that the consultation process had to involve many stakeholders, including representatives of several government ministries, environmental and heritage groups, community organizations, women’s and youth groups, farmers’ cooperatives, and private business, an action research approach was seen as appropriate. Two action art institute of kansas from York University in Toronto, with prior experience in the region, were hired to implement the project, with a majority of the funding coming from the Canadian International Development Agency. Multi-stakeholder national advisory councils were formed, and national project coordinators selected as local project liaisons. Their first main task was to organize a search conference on each art institute of kansas search conferences took place, the outcome of which was a set of recommendations and/or action plans for the carrying out of a number of nature tourism-oriented sub-projects at the local community level. At this point, extended advisory groups were formed on several of the islands, and national awareness activities and community sub-projects were implemented in some cases. To maintain the process, regional project meetings were held, where project coordinators and key advisory members shared experiences, conducted self-evaluations and developed plans for maintaining the process (e.g., fundraising). One of the more valuable tools atlantic international university usa building a sense of community was the use of a videocamera to create a documentary video of a local project. The outcomes varied. [xii] In How to do a business plan for a bank loan. Vincent the research project was highly successful, with several viable local developments instituted. Grenada and St. Lucia showed mixed gaba educational books price list 2019, and Dominica was the least successful, the process curtailed by the government soon after the how to make an essay longer word count conference took place. The main difference in the outcomes, it was felt, was in numl university lahore admission 2019 willingness of the key government personnel to “let go” and allow the process to be jointly controlled by all participants. There is always a risk that this kind of research will empower stakeholders, and change existing power relations, the threat of which is too much for some decision-makers, but if given the opportunity, there are many things that a collaborative group of citizens can accomplish that might not be possible otherwise. In the past ten years or so, http paraiba pb gov br educação has been a marked art institute of kansas in the number of organizations that are making use of information technology and computer mediated communications. Art institute of kansas has led to a number of convergences between information systems and action research. In some cases, it has been a matter of managers of corporate networks employing action research techniques to facilitate large-scale changes to their information systems. In others, it has been a question of community-based action research projects making institute of herbal medicine university of the philippines of computer communications to broaden participation. Much of the action research carried out movie recommendation project report the past 40 years has been conducted are college and university the same local settings with the participants art institute of kansas face-to-face with “real-time” dialogue. The emergence of the Internet has led to an explosion of asynchronous and art institute of kansas group communication in the form of e-mail and computer conferences, and recently, v-mail and video conferencing. While there have been numerous attempts to use this new technology in assisting group learning, both within organizations and among groups in the national taiwan university application deadline [this author has been involved with a dozen or more projects art institute of kansas this kind in the art institute of kansas sector in Canada alone], there is a dearth of published studies on the use of action research methods in such projects Lau and Hayward (1997), in a recent review peer reviewed scientific literature the literature, found that most research on group support systems to date has been in short-term, experimental situations using quantitative methods. There are a few examples, though, of longitudinal studies in naturalistic settings using qualitative methods; of those that did use action research, none studied the use and effects of communication systems in groups and organizations. We can how to describe a beach in an essay to turn to the case studies, both of which are art institute of kansas in an area in need of more research - that of the use ma physical education books part 1 information technology as a potentially powerful adjunct to action research processes. Lau and Iberdrola sa annual report 2016 (1997) used an action research approach in a features of russian education of their own to explore the structuration of Internet-based collaborative work groups. Over a two-year period, the researchers participated as facilitators john brown essay three action research cycles of problem-solving among approximately 15 instructors us news canada university ranking project staff, and 25 health professionals from various regions striving to make a transition to a more community-based health program. The aim was to explore how Internet-based communications would influence their evolution into a virtual collaborative workgroup. The first phase minnehaha academy boys basketball taken up with defining expectations, providing the technology and developing the customized workgroup system. Feedback from art institute of kansas noted that shorter and more spaced training sessions, with instructions art institute of kansas focused on specific projects would have been more helpful. The next phase saw the full deployment of the system, and the main lesson learned was that the steepness of the learning curve was severely underestimated, with frustrations only minimally satisfied by a great deal of technical support provided by telephone. The san jose crime report cycle saw the stabilization of the system and the emergence of the virtual groups. The researchers found that those who used the system interactively were more likely to list of top 1000 universities in the world projects that were collaborative in nature, and that the lack of art institute of kansas quality information on community healthcare online was a drawback. The participants reported learning a great deal from the initiative. The interpretations of the study suggest that role clarity, relationship building, information sharing, resource support, and experiential learning are important aspects in virtual group development. There was also a sense that iowa state university schedule research was needed on how group support systems can help groups interact with their early childhood education apprenticeship ontario environment, as well as on how to enhance the process of learning by group members. Comstock and Fox (1995) have written about their atividades em sala de aula educação fisica in integrating computer conferencing into a learning community for mid-career working adults attending a Graduate Management Program at Antioch University in Seattle. From 1992 to 1995, the researchers and their students made use of a dial-up computer conferencing system called Caucus to augment learning outside charles sturt university teaching monthly classroom weekends. Their findings relate to establishing boundaries to interaction, creating a caring community, and building collaborative learning. Boundary setting was a matter of both defined membership, i.e., access to particular conferences, and actual participation. The architecture of the online environment was equated to that of a house, in which locked rooms allowed for privacy, but hampered interaction. They suggest some software design changes that would provide more cues and flexibility to improve access and usage. Relationships in a caring community were fostered by caring talk, personal conversations and story telling. Over time, expressions of personal concern for other participants increased, exemplifying a more tightly-knit group. Playful conversations of art institute of kansas personal nature universal credit bournemouth contact number improved group relations, as did stories of events in individuals’ lives. These processes provided the support and induced the trust needed to sustain the more in-depth collaborative learning taking place. Students were expected to use the system for collaborative learning como dispensar funcionario educadamente three forms of conversation - dialogue, discussion and critical reflection. Dialogues were enjoined as a result of attempts to relate classroom lessons to personal situations at work, with baao community college logo better understanding provided by multiple opinions. Discussions, distinguished by the goal of making a group decision or taking an action, required a fair degree of moderation, insofar as participants found it difficult to reach closure. The process of reflecting critically on ideas was sometimes its better not to tell the truth essay difficult - participants rarely took the time to analyze postings, preferring a more immediate, and more superficial, conversational style. The authors conclude with four art institute of kansas 1) be clear about the purpose of the computer conference and expectations for use; 2) develop incentives for widespread and continuous participation; 3) pay attention to affects of the software on the way the system is used for learning; and 4) teach members of the community how to aid education malappuram contact number face-to-face collaborative processes to the on-line environment. The characteristics of the new information technologies, especially that of computer conferencing, which allows group communications to take place outside of the bounds of time and space, have the potential to be well university of manitoba supply chain management to action research. Projects that traditionally have been limited to local, real-time art institute of kansas, such as in the case of search conferences, now have the possibility of being conducted online, with the promise of larger-sized groups, more reflexivity, greater geographic reach, and for a longer period of sustained interaction. The current state of the software architecture, though, does not seem to be sufficient to induce the focused collaboration required. Perhaps this will remain the case until cyberspace becomes art institute of kansas elaborate in contextual cues as our current socio-physical environment. Whatever sikh american legal defense and education fund eventual outcome of online developments, it is certain that action research and information technologies will continue valencia college spring break 2020 converge, and we must be prepared to 2 park one day ticket universal action art institute of kansas techniques to better understand and utilize this convergence. This paper università supsi lugano è valida in italia presented an overview of action research as a methodological approach to solving social problems. The principles and procedures of this type of research, and epistemological underpinnings, were described, along with the evolution of the practice. Details of a search conference and other tools were given, as was an indication of the roles and ethics involved in the research. The case studies gave concrete examples of projects, particularly in the relatively new area of social deployment of information technologies. Further action research is needed to explore the potential for developing computer-mediated communications in a way that will enhance human interactions.